www.Chlorine Kills.com

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Chlorine Kills. That’s a fact. Chlorine and its derivatives are known carcinogens. It is in the water that you and your family drink and shower in every day and it is especially harmful to women and children.

Take a few minutes to read the content of this website. Everyone should be aware about how much Chlorine harms our body cells and the environment … luckily, there are some solutions …

Note: We have tried to make this website as easy to read and digest as possible, including highlights wherever possible, which may not have appeared in the original article or quote.

Welcome to www.Chlorine Kills.com

Please excuse the bluntness of our domain name but Chlorine is indeed a Killer. Everyone knows that. It kills all the bugs and germs in our water so it’s safe for us to drink, right?

Well, that’s partially true. It does kill the bugs, but does it really leave the water safe? Certainly without chlorine (or something that has the same effect) in the water, it would either be unsafe to drink or a (most likely much more expensive) alternative must be found to do the same job. It kills nasties in our public drinking water and it’s relatively cheap, so it’s probably here to stay for a while.

However, the tragic truth is that it’s killing us too.

That’s right. KILLING us too. Causing all kinds of cancers and other severe health problems and that’s just what the professors, doctors, researchers, surgeon generals and many others say, let alone the growing body of public and wider opinion.

"No level of exposure to a chemical carcinogen should be considered toxicologically insignificant to humans."
- Surgeon General, National Cancer Institute.

Now read the 40+ more selected quotes from such prominent scientists over here …

 … if you dare >>>

Chlorine is dangerous to us to ingest (in our drinking water) and even more so in our showers, in our baths and when cooking (through inhalation, and through the skin). The dangers of chlorine are magnified significantly when the water is hot, so having long hot showers might feel good, but it is definitely not the way to improve your health.

See the many quotes over here >>>

Chlorine is known to increase the chances of causing all these major problems:
(and you can find all the sources for this information on this website, so that you don’t think we’re making it up):

N       Breast cancer

N       Bladder cancer

N       Rectal cancer

N       Cancer of the larynx

N       Liver cancer

N       Stomach cancer

N       Colon cancer

N       Cancer of the oesophagus

N       Genetic mutations

N       Heart disease

N       Atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries)

N       Anaemia

N       High blood pressure

N       Allergic reactions (many and varied)

N       Protein destruction

N       Adverse effects on skin

N       Adverse effect on hair (becomes dry, brittle)

N       Respiratory problems

N       Irritation of nose, throat, lungs, sinuses

N       Asthma

N       Bronchitis

N       Dry, flaky, itching skin

N       Eye conditions

N       Hodgkins disease

 

“Chlorine is so dangerous, that it should be banned. Putting chlorine in the water is like starting a time bomb. Cancer, heart trouble, premature senility, both mental and physical are conditions attributable to chlorine, used in treated water supplies. It is making us grow old before our time by producing symptoms of ageing such as hardening of the arteries. I believe if chlorine were now proposed for the first time to be used in drinking water it would be banned by the Food and Drug Administration."
- Biologist/chemist Dr. Herbert Schwartz

Why are renowned scientists getting so hot under the collar about chlorine??

Here’s what just a few studies on chlorine have shown:

N       Bladder cancer risks are doubled

N       Cancer risk is 93% higher among those using chlorinated water

N       Using swimming pools increases risks of bladder cancer 57%

N       Those taking long hot showers/baths also had higher risks than just drinking

N       At least 2 cancer-causing chemicals evaporate into the air when we shower and are likely to be inhaled

N       Chloroform (a known carcinogen) increases 100 times during a 10-minute shower

N       1 in 5 Americans drink contaminated water

N       By 2015, more people will die from water and food related cancers than from lung cancer

N       Exposure to chlorine can be through inhalation and skin, not only ingestion

N       Heart attacks and strokes are caused by chlorine in the drinking water

Starting to see the scale of the problem?

And then there is the environmental damage caused by such water flowing out of our homes into the general waste-water systems – do you think that’s helping the environment? Do you think that’s very “green”?

There are products offering solutions like the
AquaVita Energizer – feel free to surf this website and make up your own mind about whether those featured products can help your (and your family’s) health …

If, after reading all of the above and the 40+ quotations to the right from such notables as:

Ø       The US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

Ø       A Nobel Prize Winner

Ø       Surgeon General, National Cancer Institute

Ø       US Council of Environmental Quality

Ø       Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory

Ø       World Health Organization

Ø       National Academy of Sciences

Ø       University of Pittsburgh

Ø       University of Iowa

Ø       University of Boston

Ø       University of Maryland

Ø       Medical College of Wisconsin

Ø       American Journal of Public Health

Ø       BreastCancerFund.org

Ø       Lawrence Berkeley (California) Laboratory

Ø       Boston University of Public Health

Ø       Natural Resources Defense Council

Ø       Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona

Ø       Science News

Ø       New Scientist

Ø       Doctors, Hospitals and Scientists

Ø       and many more reputable sources,

and you’re still not sure about how harmful chlorine is, then please do carry on reading.

There’s lots more information but we’re afraid the news doesn’t get any more cheerful.

And it seems it’s worse for children. Who says so? The World Health Organization, that’s WHO! Dr Terri Damstra of the WHO says that children are especially vulnerable and that their lung maturation may be altered by air pollutants that induce acute respiratory effects and may be the origin of chronic respiratory disease later in life.

Read more >>>

Chlorinated Water and Unknown Hazards of the Shower

When we return from a gym workout or a jogging session or after playing a sport, not only are we thirsty but we usually shower or bathe. We have been taught that cleanliness and health go together, and indeed they do, when chemical-free water is used.

When chlorinated water is used, however, bathing may be much less healthy than we ever supposed. Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air. When we have a hot shower or run a bath we can sometimes smell the chlorine released as it escapes from the hot water. In a confined shower recess, however, especially one with poor ventilation, the chlorine escapes from the water as we continue the hot shower and steadily increases in concentration in the air we breathe. The olfactory threshold for chlorine is about 3.5 PPM (parts per million) so when we can smell chlorine the concentration is already above this level. The lethal concentration for ten-minute exposure is about 600 PPM and we suggest that regularly taking hot showers with chlorinated water could pose a health risk.

Chlorine causes pulmonary edema, and it would seem likely that regular exposure to chlorine gas even at low levels such as in normal showering may reduce the oxygen transfer capacity of the lungs. This could be a critical factor for athletes and for others prone to heart failure.

Another aspect to be considered is our skin. Our skin is an important protective barrier for our bodies. When we shower with chlorinated water we are essentially exposing our skin to a relatively large volume of a dilute chlorine solution. Some of this chlorine reacts with the oils in the skin to form chlorinated compounds and it is these compounds which may then be absorbed by the body. It seems very likely, considering strong oxidizing power of chlorine, that regular exposure to chlorinated water serves also to promote the aging process of the skin, not unlike extended exposure to sunlight. Moreover, chlorine may actually enhance the aging effects of ultraviolet radiation by reinforcing the process of cell deterioration.

Another skin factor to be considered with the destruction by chlorine is the natural bacteria balance on our skin. Our skin has an ecology, all of its own, which needs to be preserved in order to maintain healthy skin and its associated beauty.

Skin Absorption as a route of Exposure For Volatile Organic Compounds

By the American Journal of Public Health 1984 74:479-484 

HYDRATION - The more hydrated the skin, the greater the absorption. If the skin is hydrated (through perspiration or immersion in water) or if the contaminant compounds are in solution, diffusion and penetration will be enhanced.

TEMPERATURE - Increased skin or water temperature will enhance skin absorption capacity proportionately. During swimming and bathing, it may be expected that greater hydration of skin surfaces will take place.

SKIN CONDITION - Any insult (i.e. sunburn) or injury (i.e. cuts, wounds, abrasions) to the outer layer of skin will lower its ability to act as a barrier against foreign substances. A history of skin disease such as psoriasis or eczema acts to lower the natural barrier of the outer skin layer, as do rashes, dermatitis, or any chronic skin condition.

REGIONAL VARIABILITY - Skin absorption rates vary with the different regions of the body. Underestimated is the case of whole body immersion during swimming or bathing. The epidermis of the hand represents a relatively greater barrier to penetration than many other parts of the body, including the scalp, forehead, abdomen, area in and around the ears, underarms, and genital area. Penetration through the genital area, in fact, is estimated to be 100% as compared to 8.56% for the forearm.

OTHER ROUTES OF ENTRY - Other significant routes of absorption include oral, nasal, cheeks, and mouth cavity, and eye and ear areas. These routes have been underestimated in their ability to absorb contaminants during immersion in water. Inhalation serves as yet another route. In the case of swimming or bathing, the volatized chemicals are likely to gather near the surface of the water and are readily inhalable. In addition, water may be swallowed in these situations.

INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY - Absorption rates obtained from healthy adults will again tend to underestimate absorption for children or populations that are more sensitive.

Why filter Your Shower Water?
Chlorine is a toxic chemical. It is used in water treatment to reduce and kill forms of biological agents, such as bacteria and viruses found in water systems.

Chlorine is harmful to you when you drink it and when it is absorbed into our skin and inhaled into your lungs when you shower. It has been estimated that the "shower steam" in your bathroom can contain up to 100 times the amount of chlorine than chlorinated water, because chlorine evaporates out of water at a relatively low temperature. If you bathe or shower in unfiltered tap water you are inhaling and absorbing chlorine into your body.

Conditions contributed to or aggravated by chlorine exposure:

· Respiratory Conditions (nose, throat, lungs, sinuses): Asthma, bronchitis
· Hair: Dry, brittle
· Skin: Dry, flaking, dandruff, itching, rashes (especially infants and children)
· Eye conditions

Chlorine is universally used to chemically disinfect water. It kills germs, bacteria and other living organisms. Chlorine readily passes through the cell wall and attaches to the fatty acids of the cell, disrupting the life sustaining functions. The human body is composed of billions of cells.

Most people are aware that the quality of their drinking water can be improved by filtering their tap water or buying bottled water. However, many do not realize that they are addressing only a part of the problem.

One half of our daily chlorine exposure is from showering. Chlorine is not only absorbed through the skin, but also re-vaporized in the shower, inhaled into the lungs, and transferred directly into the blood system. In fact, the chlorine exposure from one shower is equal to an entire day's amount of drinking the same water. Drinking filtered or bottled water only does half the job. For people who are concerned about their health and are willing to take the responsibility to do something about it, the AquaVita Water Products are an affordable solution to the problem.

Increased Risks of Bladder Cancer by Drinking, Bathing or Swimming in Chlorinated Water

By The American Journal of Epidemiology, January 2007

The findings are the first to suggest that these chemicals can be harmful when they are inhaled or absorbed through the skin, as well as when they are ingested, Dr. Cristina M. Villanueva of the Municipal Institute of Medical Research in Barcelona, and colleagues note.

Chemicals, most commonly chlorine, used to disinfect water can produce by-products that have been tied to increased cancer risks, Villanueva and her team point out.

The most prevalent chlorination by-products, chemicals called trihalomethanes (THM), can be absorbed into the body through the skin or by inhalation, they add.

To investigate lifetime trihalomethanes (THM) exposure and bladder cancer risks, the researchers matched 1,219 men and women with bladder cancer to 1,271 control individuals who did not have the disease, surveying them about their exposure to chlorinated water via drinking water, swimming pools, showering and bathing. The researchers also analyzed the average water trihalomethanes (THM) levels in the 123 municipalities included in the study.

People living in households with an average household water trihalomethanes (THM) level of more than 49 micrograms per liter had double the bladder cancer risks of those living in households where water trihalomethanes (THM) concentration was below 8 micrograms per liter, the researchers found. trihalomethanes (THM) levels of about 50 micrograms per liter are common in industrialized societies, they note.

Study participants who drank chlorinated water were at 35% greater risks of bladder cancer than those who didn't, while use of swimming pools boosted bladder cancer risks by 57%. And those who took longer showers or baths and lived in municipalities with higher trihalomethanes (THM) levels were also at increased cancer risks.

When trihalomethanes (THM) is absorbed through the skin or lungs, Villanueva and her team note, it may have a more powerful carcinogenic effect because it does not undergo detoxification via the liver.

Cancer & Chlorine

Is the chlorine in our drinking water acting as catalyst triggering tumor development both in atherosclerosis and cancer? The addition of chlorine to our drinking water started in the late 1890’s and had wide acceptance in the United States by 1920. Joseph Price, M. D, wrote a fascinating yet largely ignored book in the late 1960’s, entitled Coronaries, Cholesterol. Chlorine, Dr Price believes, is the primary and essential cause of atherosclerosis is chlorine.

"Nothing can negate the incontrovertible fact the basic cause of atherosclerosis and resulting entities, such as heart attacks and most common forms of stokes is chlorine. The chlorine contained in processed drinking water." (1)

This conclusion is based on experiments using chlorine in the drinking water of chickens. The results: 95% of the chickens given chlorine added to distilled water developed atherosclerosis within a few months.

Atherosclerosis, heart attacks and the resulting problems of hardening of the arteries and plaque formation is really the last step in a series of biochemical malfunctions. Dr Price points out it takes ten to twenty years before symptoms in humans become evident in many ways, this is reminiscent of cancer which can take twenty to thirty years to develop.

Can chlorine be linked to cancer too? In the chlorination process itself, chlorine combines with natural organic matter decaying vegetation to form potent cancer causing trihalomethanes (THM’s) or haloforms. Trihalomethanes collectively include such carcinogens as chloroforms, bromoforms carbon tectachloride, bischlorothane and others.

The amount of THM’s in our drinking water is theoretically regulated by the EPA. Although the maximum amount allowed by law is 100 ppb, a 1976 study showed 31 of 112 municipal water systems exceeded this limit. (2)

According to some studies by 1975, the number of chemical contaminants found in finished drinking water exceeded 300. (3) In 1984 over 700 chemicals had been found in our drinking water. The EPA has targeted 129 as posing the greatest threat to our health. Currently the EPA enforces federal standards for 34 drinking water contaminants. In July, 1990 they proposed adding 23 new ones and expects this list increasing to 85 in 1992. (4)

Another report claims the picture is much worse. According to “Troubled Waters on Tap" over 2,100 contaminants have been detected in U. S. drinking water since 1974 with 190 known or suspected to cause adverse health effects at certain concentration levels. In total, 97 carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, 82 mutagens and suspected mutagens, 28 acute and chronic toxic contaminants and 23 tumor promoters have been detected in U. S. drinking water since 1974. The remaining 90% of the organic matter present in drinking water has not been identified by testing to-date.

Compounds in these concentrations could pose serious toxic effects, either alone or in combination with other chemicals found in drinking water. Overall, available scientific evidence continues to substantiate the link between consumption of toxins in drinking water and serious public health concerns, Studies have strengthened the association between ingestion of toxins and elevated cancer mortality risks"(5)

Studies in New Orleans, Louisiana; Eric County, New York, Washington County Maryland, Ohio County, Ohio reveal high levels of haloforms or THM ‘s in drinking water The result – higher levels of cancer. (6) (7) (8) (9)

‘The continued use of chlorine as the main drinking water disinfectant in the United States only adds to the organic chemical contamination of drinking water supplies. The current federal standard regulation of trihalomethanes do not adequately protect water consumers from the multitude of other organic chlorination by-products that have been shown in many studies to be mutagenic and toxic’(5)

"Chlorine is so dangerous" according to biologist/chemist Dr. Herbert Schwartz, "that Is should be banned. Putting chlorine in the water is like starting a time bomb. Cancer heart trouble, premature senility, both mental and physical are conditions attributable to chlorine, used in treated water supplies. It is making us grow old before our time by producing symptoms of ageing such as hardening of the arteries. I believe if chlorine were now proposed for the first time to be used in drinking water it would be banned by the Food and Drug Administration."(10)

Many municipalities are experimenting with a variety of disinfectants to either take the place of chlorine or to be used in addition, as a way of cutting down on the amount of chlorine added to the water However these alternatives such as chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride, chloromines, etc., are just as dangerous as chlorine. We’re replacing one toxic chemical with another.

On the positive side, some cities are starting to use aeration carbon filtration, ultraviolet light and ozone as safe alternatives to chemical disinfectants. But the number of cities and the number of people getting water from these methods is minimal.

How can chlorination be linked to heart disease and cancer? In Super Nutrition for Healthy Hearts Dr Richard Passwater shows how "the origin of heart disease is akin to the origin of cancer" Chlorination could very well be a key factor linking these two major diseases Chlorine creates THM's and haloforms. These potent chemical pollutants can trigger the production of excess free radicals in our bodies. Free radicals cause cell damage. Excess free radicals can cause normal smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall to go haywire, to mutate. The fibrous plaque consequently formed is essentially a benign tumor. (11) Unfortunately, this tumor is linked with the origin of heart disease.

If your drinking water is chlorinated, don’t drink it You can purchase very effective filters which will remove 99% of the THM’s or purchase proper bottled spring water. Just this simple safeguard may save thousands from heart disease and cancer - the two major degenerative killers in the United States.

1.        Price JM. Coronaries Cholesterol/Chlorine. NY: Pyramid, 1969.

2.        Maugh TH. New Study Links Chlorination and Cancer Science 1983; 211 (February 13): 694.

3.        Wilkins JR, Reiches NA, Kruse CW. Organic Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water and Cancer AM. J. Epidemology 1979; 114: 179-190.

4.        U.S Water News. EPA Seeking to Expand Number of Drinking Water Contaminants to 34. August 1990: 8

5.        Conacher D. Troubled Waters on Tap Organic Chemicals in Public Drinking Water Systems and the Failure of Regulation. Wash D. C: Center for Study of Responsive Law, 1988: 114.

6.        Page T, Harris RH, Epstein SS. Drinking Water and Cancer Morality in Louisiana. Science 1976; 193: 55-57.

7.        Gottlieb DG, Osborne RH. Premiminary Report on Nationwide Study of Drinking Water and Cardiovascular Diseases. J. Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. 1980; 3: 65-76.

8.        Carlo GL, Mettlin CJ. Cancer Incidence and Trihalomethane Concentrations in a Public Water System. AM. J. Public Health 1980; 70 (May): 523-525

9.        Wilkins JR, Comstock GW. Source of Drinking Water at Home and Site-Specific Cancer Incidence in Washington County, Maryland. AM J. Epidemology. 1981; 114: 178-190.

10.     Dons Bach KW, Walker M. Drinking Water. Huntingdon Beach, CA: Int’l Institute of Natural Health Sciences, 1981.

11.    Passwater R. Supernutrition for Healthy Hearts. NY: Jova 1978.

Source: - Healthy Water, Martin Fox, PhD

FEATURED PRODUCT

“Cancer risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine.”
- Saginaw Hospital, Dr JM Price MD

“In the industrialized world of today, "living", energetically charged water is a rarity. In our drinking water supply systems, water is exposed to the detrimental energetic effects of straight unnatural water pipes, high mains pressures and chemical treatments. Water is not allowed to move in its naturally winding way thereby causing loss of life force. Negative energetic imprints from chemicals, such as fertilizers, pesticides and sterilizers remain in the water, even after physical removal of such substances.”
- Dr Wolfgang Ludwig & Prof. Jacques Benveniste

"We are quite convinced‚ based on this study‚ that there is an association between cancer and chlorinated water."
- Medical College Of Wisconsin‚ Senior Research Team

"One common factor among women with breast cancer is that they all have 50-60% higher levels of these chlorination by-products (THMs) in their fat tissue than women without breast cancer..."
- BreastCancerFund.org

“A long, hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals are inhaled in high concentrations.”
- “Is Your Water Safe – The Dangerous State of Your Water!”, US News & World Report, 29 July 1991

“Drinking tap water that is chlorinated is hazardous, if not deadly to your health.”
- US Council of Environmental Quality

"Ironically, even the Chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces Carcinogenic traces. Studies indicate the suspect chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed through the skin during showering and bathing."
- U. S. News & World Report - 29 July 1991, Is your Water Safe - The Dangerous State of Your Water

FEATURED PRODUCT

“On one hand, chlorination has freed civilization from the constant dangers of waterborne epidemics. On the other hand, in the mid-70’s, scientists discovered that chlorine could create carcinogens in water. Eighty per cent of the population drinks chlorinated water. There was a higher incidence of cancer of the oesophagus, rectum, breast and larynx and of Hodgkins Disease among those drinking chlorinated surface water. Volatile Organics can evaporate from water in a shower or bath. Conservative calculations indicate that inhalation exposures can be as significant as exposure to drinking the water, that is one can be exposed to as much by inhalation during a shower as by drinking 2 litres of water a day. People who shower frequently could be exposed through ingestion, inhalation and/or dermal absorption.”
- “Bottom Line”, Dr John Andelman PhD, August 1987

"The cell is immortal. It is merely the fluid (water) in which it floats that degenerates. Renew this fluid at intervals, give the cells what they require for nutrition, and as far as we know, the pulsation of life may go on forever."
- Nobel Prize Winner, Dr. Alexis Carrel after keeping the cells of a chicken heart alive for 34 years

“Studies indicate the suspect chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed through the skin during showering and bathing. Ironically, even the chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces carcinogenic traces. Though 7 out of 10 Americans drink chlorinated water, its safety over the long term is uncertain. Drinking chlorinated water may as much as double the risk of Bladder Cancer, which strikes 40,000 people a year.”
- Ian Anderson, New Scientist, 18 September 1986

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“Experts agree; Medical College of Wisconsin’s Dr Robert Morris has been the featured health and water expert on Dateline NBC. Dr Morris and colleagues at the medical center have concluded after examination of 10 previous studies of the cancer-causing problems of chlorinated water, “There is a clear pattern between consumption of of chlorinated water and rectal and bladder cancer”. It is projected that by the year 2015, the combined deaths from bladder, rectal and pancreatic cancer will exceed the lung cancer death rates due to carcinogens in water and food”
- “Chlorinated Water - Not Fit For Human Consumption”, New Scientist, 18 September 1986

“Chlorine is so dangerous, that it should be banned. Putting chlorine in the water is like starting a time bomb. Cancer, heart trouble, premature senility, both mental and physical are conditions attributable to chlorine, used in treated water supplies. It is making us grow old before our time by producing symptoms of ageing such as hardening of the arteries. I believe if chlorine were now proposed for the first time to be used in drinking water it would be banned by the Food and Drug Administration."
- Biologist/chemist Dr. Herbert Schwartz

"We are learning the hard way that all the time we thought we were preventing epidemics of one disease‚ we were creating another. Two decades after the start of chlorinating our drinking water the present epidemic of heart trouble and cancer began."
- Dr. Joseph M. Price‚ PhD

"Up to 2/3 of the harmful effects of chlorine are due to inhalation and skin absorption while showering."
- The American Journal Of Public Health

“Children are not just small adults. Children are especially vulnerable and respond differently from adults when exposed to environmental factors, and this response may differ according to the different periods of development they are going through. For example, their lungs are not fully developed at birth, or even at the age of eight, and lung maturation may be altered by air pollutants that induce acute respiratory effects in childhood and may be the origin of chronic respiratory disease later in life. Over 30% of the global burden of disease in children can be attributed to environmental factors. Children have different susceptibilities during different life stages, due to their dynamic growth and developmental processes. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures prenatally and at birth include miscarriage, still birth, low birth weight and birth defects; in young children, infant mortality, asthma, neurobehavioural and immune impairment; and in adolescents, precocious or delayed puberty. Emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of certain diseases in adults such as cancer and heart disease can result in part from exposures to certain environmental chemicals during childhood.”
- Dr Terri Damstra, WHO’s team leader for the Interregional Research Unit

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“Taking long hot showers is a health risk, according to research presented last week in Anaheim, California, at a meeting of the American Chemical Society. Showers – and to a lesser extent baths – lead to a greater exposure of toxic chemicals contained in water supplies than does the drinking water. The chemicals evaporate out of the water and are inhaled. They can also spread through the house and be inhaled by others. House holders can receive 6 to 100 times more of the chemical by breathing the air around showers and bath than they would by drinking the water.
- “Chlorine and Your Shower”, New Scientist, 18 September 1986

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“The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 200 to 1000 people die in the United States each year from cancers by ingesting the contaminants in water. The major health threat posed by these pollutants is far more likely to be from their inhalation as air pollutants. The reason that emissions are high is that because water droplets dispersed by the shower head have a larger surface-to-value ratio than water streaming into the bath.”
- “The Nader Report – Troubled Waters on Tap”, Center for Study of Responsive Law

“A professor of Water Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh claims that exposure to vaporized chemicals in the water supplies through showering, bathing and inhalation is 100 times greater than through drinking the water. As chlorine is added to kill pathogenic micro-organisms, the highly reactive chlorine combines with fatty acids and carbon fragments to form a variety of toxic compounds, which comprise about 30% of the chlorination by-products. During the mid-1970’s, monitoring efforts began to identify widespread toxic contamination of the nations’
drinking water supplies, epidemiological studies began to suggest a link between ingestion of toxic chemicals in the water and elevated cancer mortality risks. Since those studies were completed a variety of additional studies have strengthened the statistical connection between consumption of toxins in water and elevated cancer risks. Moreover, this basic concern has been heightened by other research discoveries.”
- Environmental Protection Agency, Dr Lance Wallace

“Chlorine gas was despicably used in WW1. When the war was over, the use of chlorine was diverted to poisoning germs in our drinking water. All water supplies throughout the country were chlorinated. The combination of chlorine (when in drinking water) and animal fats results in atherosclerosis, hearth attacks and deaths.”
- “Chemistry and Control of Modern Chlorination”, Dr AT Palin, PhD, (OBE)

“The cause for atherosclerosis and resulting heart attacks and strokes is none other than the ubiquitous chlorine in our drinking water.”
- “Science News”, Vol 130, Janet Raloff

“Chlorine is used almost universally in the treatment of public drinking water because of its toxic effect on harmful bacteria and other waterborne, disease-causing organisms. But there is a growing body of scientific evidence that shows that chlorine in drinking water may actually pose greater long-term dangers than those for which it was used to eliminate. These effects of chlorine may result from either ingestion or absorption through the skin. Scientific studies have linked chlorine and chlorination by-products to cancer of the bladder, liver, stomach, rectum and colon as well as heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), anaemia, high blood pressure and allergic reactions. There is also evidence that shows that chlorine can destroy protein in our body and cause adverse effects on skin and hair.
The presence of chlorine in water may also contribute to the formation of chloramines in the water, which can cause taste and odour problems. Since chlorine is required by public health regulations to be present in all public drinking water supplies, it is up to the individual to remove it at the point-of-use in the home.”
- Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Francis T Mayo, Director

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"The steamy air of a shower contains significant amounts of at least two cancer-causing chemicals that evaporate out of water."
- J Andelman, Professor of Water Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh

"Almost two decades have passed since known or suspected human carcinogens were first found in municipal water supplies. One of them, chloroform, produced by the chlorination process, exposes millions of Americans. The potential for a major public health problem is unquestionably there, and yet, progress has been slow."
- Dr. Peter Isacson, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine

"We conclude that skin absorption of contaminants in drinking water has been underestimated and that ingestion may not constitute the sole or even primary route of exposure."
- American Journal of Public Health, May, 1984, Vol. 74, No. 5

"Showering is suspected as the primary cause of elevated of chloroform in nearly every home because of the chlorine in the water. Chloroform [a known carcinogen] levels increase up to 100 times during a ten-minute shower in residential water"
- Environmental Protection Agency - Dr. Lance Wallace

"I tell my friends to take quick, cold showers", said Julian B. Andelman, Professor of Water Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, who claimed that the longer and hotter the shower, the more chemicals build up in the air”.
- San Jose Mercury News, September 11, 1986

“Known carcinogens are found in drinking water as a direct consequence of the practice of chlorination. A long established public health practice for the disinfection of drinking water.”
- “Healthy Water For A Longer Life”, Dr Martin Fox

"Many investigators have reported on the toxicity and unexpected high penetration rates of volatile organic chemicals."
- American Journal of Public Health

“Some 36 million Americans drink water that’s contaminated with toxins, microbes or other pollutants, according to s survey by the Natural Resources Defense Council. And the number of those imbibing potentially unhealthy water shoots up to 50 million – 1 in 5 Americans – if you include those whose water is inadequately treated for contaminants. The study is designed to influence Congress, which appears set to dilute the Safe Drinking Water Act, up for renewal later this year”.
- “Hit The Bottle”, New Scientist, 18 September 1986

“In the vast majority of cases where germ-free water is required whether for public supply, or in the swimming pool, the process of disinfection will involve the use of chlorine in one form or another.”
- “Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine”, Dr JM Price MD

“Chlorine is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times. While it prevented epidemics of one disease, it was creating another. Two decades ago, after the start of chlorinating our drinking water in 1904, the present epidemic of heart trouble, cancer and senility began.”
- “Water Can Undermine Your Health”, Dr NW Walker, DS

“Americans are becoming more aware of the contaminants in our nation's water supplies and many are installing water filters to purify their drinking water. Yet most continue to bathe and shower straight from the tap, unaware that inhaling unfiltered shower vapors (steam) is more harmful than actually drinking the water itself. During a shower, toxic chloroform evaporates into the surrounding air you breathe. In addition, The Center for Study of Responsive Law's, Troubled Water on Tap report, states that over 2,100 contaminants have been found in drinking water. Of those 2,100, 190 are known to cause adverse health effects. In total, 97 carcinogens, 82 mutagens and suspected mutagens (cause cell mutations), 23 tumor promoters and 28 acute and chronic toxic contaminants have been detected in U.S. drinking water. According to East West magazine, consumers should purchase shower head filters which remove chlorine and other contaminants to prevent exposure to chloroform [and other toxic substances]."
- Center for Study of Responsive Law, Consumers Research Magazine, East West, July 1989.

"Studies have documented the presence in the drinking water of many potentially toxic volatile organic chemicals (VOC's) - from chloroform and pesticides to carbon tetrachloride. Such findings have spurred investigations into the inhalation hazards these compounds may pose when released in the air during baths and showers. However, because shower and tub equipment, as well as other design features, differed widely in these experiments, air releases for a single VOC could vary up to 10-fold from one studied system to another."
- John C. Little, Lawrence Berkeley (California) Laboratory, Science News, August 15, 1992

Millions of Americans have been drinking tap water contaminated with chemical byproducts from chlorine that are far more than what studies suggest may be safe for pregnant women. Chlorine is commonly used to disinfect drinking water. When it is added to water that contains organic matter such as runoff from farms or lawns, however, it can form compounds such as chloroform that can cause illness. Areas that may have increased health risks including miscarriage, neural tube defects and reduced fetal growth from women drinking chlorination byproducts.
- Environmental Working Group and Public Interest Research Group

"We have known for a long time that chloramines can trigger, rather than cause asthma.”
- Ralph Riley, head of the National Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group

"Each day in America, about 30 cases of rectal cancer may be associated with THMs (chlorination by products) in drinking water."
- Natural Resources Defense Council

"U.S. drinking water contains more than 2100 toxic chemicals that can cause cancer."
- Ralph Nader Research Group

"The risk of disease associated with public drinking water has passed from the theoretical to the real."
- Dr. David Ozonoff, Boston University of Public Health

"More than 45 million Americans drank water supplied by systems where the unregulated and potentially deadly contaminant, Cryptosporidium, was found in their raw or treated water."
- Natural Resources Defense Council

"Drinking water in the U.S. is among the top four public health risks posed by environmental problems."
- Former EPA Administrator, William K. Reilly

"Residues of 39 pesticides and their degradation products have been detected in the groundwater of thirty four states."
- National Academy of Sciences

"35% of the reported gastrointestinal illnesses among tap water drinkers were water related and preventable."
- Center For Disease Control Researchers

"USA Today; There's no telling precisely how many Americans get sick each year from drinking bad water... I would say that the cases we learn about are the tip of the iceberg."
- Deborah Levy; Waterborne - disease Expert, Center for Disease Control

"The one thing we know for sure about toxins in our drinking water, is that the more we look... the more we find."
- Jacquelyn Warren, Council for the Natural Resources Defense Council 

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Extracts from Drinking Water and Women’s Health

- Brenda M. Afzal RN, MS
(Co-director of the Environmental Health Education Center, at the University of Maryland School of Nursing).

Introduction

Early concern for drinking water quality centered on its aesthetic qualities: “is it cloudy; does it have an odor?” There was little understanding of the relationship between drinking water and disease until the mid-19th century, when Dr. John Snow, a British physician, correlated an outbreak of cholera in London to drinking water drawn from a contaminated source. Pasteur’s discovery of the germ theory later in the 19th century helped explain why water sometimes made people sick. Bacterial pathogens would remain the focus of concern during most of the 20th century.

After World War II, growth in agricultural and industrial development and the production of man-made chemicals provided an economic boom in the United States, but it also led to pollution of the nation’s waterways.

Drinking water laws and regulations

Public concern in the 1960s and 1970s, related to the poor state of our nation’s waterways, compelled the federal government to investigate drinking water quality in the United States. The results found that public health standards were being met by only 60% of the water systems surveyed. Mississippi River showed that water taken from the river, which had passed through a water treatment facility, still contained 36 potentially hazardous chemicals. These concerns fostered debates in Congress that led to two landmark environmental acts of legislation: the Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers both laws.

The purpose of the Clean Water Act was to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. The Safe Drinking Water Act attempts to control drinking water contamination through the use of a multiple barrier approach. This includes source water and drinking water assessment and protection, wellhead protection, qualification of water system operators, ensuring the integrity of distribution systems, and public notification of drinking water quality.

There are primary and secondary national standards for drinking water. National Primary Drinking Water Standards (NPDWSs) are legally enforceable standards limiting the amount of contaminants detectable in drinking water. There are two types of enforceable NPDWS: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Treatment Techniques. Maximum Contaminant Levels indicate the highest level of a regulated contaminant that is allowed in finished drinking water. When there is no economically or technically achievable method to measure a contaminant, a Treatment Technique is set. This sets a specific procedure or technology that must be used by public water systems to control a regulated contaminant. For example, the action level for lead in drinking water is 15 parts per billion. If testing indicates the action level was exceeded in 10% of tap water samples taken, the water utility is required to take additional steps to reduce the corrosivity of the water by adding an alkaline chemical to the water.

Drinking water contaminants

The Safe Drinking Water Act directs the EPA to regulate contaminants in public drinking water that are known to, or are likely to, pose a risk to public health. The EPA does not have the authority to regulate private drinking water systems. The EPA regulates contaminants by setting standards for “finished” drinking water that flows from treatment facilities to customers. Currently, fewer than 100 contaminants are regulated.

Contaminants are classified as inorganic or organic chemicals, radionuclides, and microorganisms. Inorganic chemicals are mineral based and do not contain carbon. They may occur naturally or enter the watershed from farming or industrial discharge. Examples of inorganic contaminants are lead, nitrates, and arsenic. Organic chemicals contain carbon and access the watershed from agricultural and industrial run off. Volatile organic chemicals are persistent in the environment and have been associated with cancer and neurological and reproductive health effects. Examples include gasoline and degreasing and dry cleaning solvents. There are over 30 standards for synthetic organic chemicals, many of which are pesticides.

Microbial contaminants found in water may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic. Disinfection and filtration methods used by public water suppliers decrease the threat from these pathogens for healthy individuals. Disease outbreaks from these pathogens are usually a result of a water system treatment failure or drinking from a contaminated water source. The infectivity of these microbes is higher for individuals with weakened immune systems.

Radionuclides emit ionizing radiation, and long-term exposure to this type of radiation from a drinking water source results in an increased risk of cancer. The EPA currently has standards for four radionuclides.

Organic chemicals contaminants - Chlorine Disinfection By-Products

Chlorine disinfection by-products are a family of contaminants of particular concern to women’s health and pregnancy outcomes. Chlorine disinfection of the nation’s drinking water in the 20th century was a major public health initiative, which led to a dramatic decrease in diseases caused by bacterial contamination. However, when chlorine is used to disinfect water, it can combine with organic material in the water distribution system, forming unintended organic chlorinated compounds, which have been associated in a variety of health outcomes, including bladder, rectal, and colon cancers, and poor reproductive and developmental end points. Health risks associated with chlorine disinfection by-products need to be taken seriously, because more than 200 million people drink water that has been disinfected.

Several epidemiologic studies have indicated that there may be an increased risk of reproductive and developmental effects to the fetuses of pregnant women exposed to high levels of chlorine disinfection by-products. Critics of these studies point to the difficulty of accurately assessing exposure. Although exposure assessment may be difficult, we know that there is potential for exposure because everyone uses water to drink, bathe, and cook, and the exposure occurs over the life span.

A 2003 in vitro study that examined the risk for spontaneous abortion related to bromodichloromethane, a chlorine disinfection by-product, concluded that exposure to this chemical could be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk was attributed to the disruption of gonadotropin secretion by differentiated trophoblasts believed to target the placenta.

Several studies have examined associations between reproductive health and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water. One such study looking at pregnancy outcomes related to trichlormethane (a disinfection by-product) exposure via drinking water ingestion indicated that increased exposure was associated with decreased menstrual cycle length.

A recent case-control study looked at intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to disinfection by-products. The findings of the study suggested the fetal growth of genetically susceptible newborns exposed to the highest levels of trihalomethanes could be affected.

If disinfection by-product levels are elevated, consider a precautionary approach. Pregnant women and women who are considering pregnancy who consume drinking water from sources known to have elevated levels of chlorine disinfection by-products should access an alternative source of drinking water. There are water treatment devices that can remove disinfection by-products from the drinking water. Reducing time spent showering or bathing, where inhalation and absorption may increase exposure, is advisable. 

Miscellaneous extracts about Chlorine

Chloramine By-Products: Reduced THM - Trihalomethanes and HAAs - Haloacetic Acids
The US Environmental Protection Agency classifies HAAs as carcinogenic to humans and animals. Peer-reviewed studies have identified adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and the ability to damage DNA. The state of Oregon has warned that long term exposure to HAAs at levels equal to those found in DC tap water could cause injury to the brain, nervous system, the eyes, and the reproductive system.

EPA scientists have identified 600 disinfection by-products in chlorinated drinking water
Even though chlorinated drinking water contains 600 disinfection by-products, the EPA has set legal limits in drinking water for only 11 of those by-products. The legal limits for HAAs and THMs, are established by balancing health, treatment cost and feasibility.

Other Toxic Chlorine By-Products Include:

1.       BromateChlorate/Chlorite

2.       Haloacetic acids

3.       Haloacetonitriles

4.       Halopicrins

5.       Trihalomethanes

6.       Nitrosodimethylamine

Protecting drinking water at the source

If the Potomac River were less polluted as it flowed into the utility's intake pipe, less chlorine and chloramines would be needed, and levels of disinfection by-products would be lower as a result.

The primary source of agriculture pollutants include, manure, fertilizer, pesticides and soil run-off, finding there way into drinking water supplies such as the Potomac River watershed. However efforts to safe-guard human exposure from agricultural pollution remain largely unfunded.

Chlorine

Used to kill life forms in the water, chlorine is a recognized carcinogen.

We are now entering into a period of increased water shortages. As reservoirs lower, water suppliers add more chlorine.

This is because the number of micro-organisms in a reservoir do not decrease as water levels drop. They simply become more concentrated. Dosage will be lifted above recommended maximums due to the necessity of containing disease through micro-organism increases. During droughts, chlorine gas can even be smelled from outside taps.

Chlorine in drinking water has been linked to increased incidence of bladder and rectal cancers by Harvard University and the Medical College of Wisconsin.

Chlorine is also linked to body protein damage. It causes dry skin and hair, and burns the eyes. If you suffer from asthma, sinus problems, allergies, skin rashes or emphysema chlorine in your water may well exacerbate your condition.

Chlorine kills bugs, but it also reacts with the organic matter in water, creating toxic new substances. One such substance, trihalomethane, is far more carcinogenic than chlorine itself.

The US EPA labels Mutagen X

Chlorine byproduct and seen as the 'single largest contributor' to the ability of municipal water to cause genetic mutations.

Chloramines

In excess of EPA's standard can cause stomach discomfort or anemia.

Chlorine Dioxide

Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of accepted standards may experience nervous system effects.  Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the standard.  Some people may also experience anemia.

By now, we hope we have convinced you that chlorine in your water may pose certain types of problems to your (and your family’s) health and if we have raised your awareness and understanding even a little, then our efforts have been worthwhile.
 
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The team at ChlorineKills.com


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